As an SL teacher it will always be a challenge to strike a balance between encouraging accuracy and fluency in your students. At most, the knowledge we gain about the language will help us in direct tests of that knowledge or in situations when we have time to self-correct, as in the editing of a piece of writing.
It appears that the role of conscious learning is somewhat limited in second language performance. Lack of self-confidence is frequently related to the over-use of the "monitor".
For example, the -ing form present continuous will be acquired early on and almost certainly before the -s inflection in the third person present simple she likes, he eats, etc.
See here an enlightening video by Krashen about comprehensible input.
It is much more difficult when engaging in regular talk. Even assuming the learner has a good knowledge of the rule in question, it is difficult to focus on grammar while simultaneously attempting to convey meaning and possibly feeling.
It is pointless spending a lot of time learning grammar rules, since this will not help us become better users of the language in authentic situations.
The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis There are two ways of developing language ability: Show all extra text Second language learning Krashen believes that there is no fundamental difference between the way we acquire our first language and our subsequent languages.
It should be clear, however, that examining irregularity, formulating rules and teaching complex facts about the target language is not language teaching, but rather is "language appreciation" or linguistics.
The Input Hypothesis We acquire language in one way only: Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition.
The Monitor Model has 5 components: Teachers should start by introducing language concepts that are relatively easy for learners to acquire and then use scaffolding to introduce more difficult concepts. Learning is the conscious process of developing a foreign language through language lessons and a focus on the grammatical features of that language.
Cambridge University Press, Krashen states that monitoring can make some contribution to the accuracy of an utterance but its use should be limited.
According to this hypothesis, teachers should be aware that certain structures of a language are easier to acquire than others and therefore language structures should be taught in an order that is conducive to learning. This cartoon shows when not to use the monitor.
In effect, both teachers and students are deceiving themselves.
The goal of any language program is for learners to be able to communicate effectively. Any subject matter that held their interest would do just as well.
This hypothesis suggests that this natural order of acquisition occurs independently of deliberate teaching and therefore teachers cannot change the order of a grammatical teaching sequence. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition.
Very often, when this occurs, both teachers and students are convinced that the study of formal grammar is essential for second language acquisition, and the teacher is skillful enough to present explanations in the target language so that the students understand. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies.
Clearly, this is possible in the correction of written work. The filtering may occur because of anxiety, poor self-esteem or low motivation. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar.
From this he developed the theory that all languages share an underlying system named Universal Grammar. The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former.
This balance will depend on numerous variables including the language level of the students, the context of language use and the personal goals of each student.
It requires no effort on the part of the learner. Usually extroverts are under-users, while introverts and perfectionists are over-users. According to Krashen the affective filter can be prompted by many different variables including anxiety, self-confidence, motivation and stress.
The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. For any given language, certain grammatical structures are acquired early while others are acquired later in the process. According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance:KRASHEN'S SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORY AND THE TEACHING OF EDITED AMERICAN ENGLISH Recent research in composition theory has provided writing teachers with an abundance of information and techniques for teaching most parts of the writing process.
They have only to pick up a journal or attend Vol.
5, No. 2. Krashen’s Five Proposals on Language Learning: Are They Valid in Libyan EFL Classes Ibrahim Abukhattala 1 1 The Libyan Academy, Misurata, Libya Krashen’s SLA theory was originally known as the Monitor Theory, perhaps because the central part of it was.
Krashen states that this is often the product of formal language instruction. According to this theory, the optimal way a language is learned is through natural communication.
As a second language teacher, the ideal is to create a situation wherein language is used in order to fulfill authentic purposes.
Finally, the fifth hypothesis, the Affective Filter hypothesis, embodies Krashen's view that a number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition. These variables include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. 2 Description of Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition: Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of five main hypotheses: the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis, the Monitor hypothesis, the Natural Order hypothesis, the Input hypothesis, and the Affective Filter hypothesis.
The Acquisition-Learning distinction.
Stephen Krashen’s L2 Acquisition Theory Compiled by Doris Shih.Download