Isidore created the first western encyclopaedia which had a huge impact during the Middle Ages. The Kingdom of Castileformed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom.
Eventually, Phoenician- Carthaginians expanded inland towards the meseta, however due to the bellicose inland tribes the Carthaginians got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Byzantines established an occidental province, Spaniain the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia.
Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, they retained control of it for over six centuries.
The Celts inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest. Roman rule was bound together by Double house utretch, language, and the Roman road.
As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: The Romanised cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture.
Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 35, years ago. Franciscan Ramon Llull and Sufi Ibn Arabiboth mystic theologists The break-up of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative.
Reccared I and bishops. Later, Frankish forces established Christian counties on the southern side of the Pyrenees. The Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga won by Don Pelayo in and was concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula.
Some important philosophers at the time were AverroesIbn Arabi and Maimonides. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period. The Castilian language—more commonly known especially later in history and at present as "Spanish" after becoming the national language and lingua franca of Spain—evolved from Vulgar Latinas did other Romance languages of Spain like the CatalanAsturian and Galician languages, as well as other Romance languages in Latin Europe.
Granada was the last Taifa in the Peninsula. Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of PoitiersFrankia and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France along the seacoast by the s.
Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East. The Spanish-Gothic scholars such as Braulio of Zaragoza and Isidore of Seville played an important role in keeping the classical Greek and Roman culture.
Alfonso worked for being elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and published the Siete Partidas code. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa.
The County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Marinid dynasty of Morocco invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out.
In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered — by largely Moorish Muslim armies from North Africa. The Islamic transmission of the classics is the main Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe.Location of Spain (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green).Download